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Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. The plausibility of data from networks of low-cost measurement devices is a growing and important contentious issue. Informal networks of low-cost devices have particularly come to prominence for air quality monitoring.
The contentious point is the believability of data without regular on-site calibration, since this is a specialist task and the costs very quickly become much larger than the cost of installation in the first place. This Sensor Issues suggests that approaches to the problem that involve appropriate use of independent information have the potential to resolve the contention.
Ideas are illustrated particularly with reference to low-cost sensor networks for air quality measurement. Known general characteristics of the measurement problem such as the general variation of the characteristics of the unknown x over a geographic region, expected diurnal variations associated with motor vehicles or sunlight, variations associated with different land-use e.
Measurements with other techniques, such as reference instruments at particular locations, satellite observations, long-term average sample measurements. Correlations with meteorology and expected spatial patterns as a result—rainfall, wind direction, and speed.
Computational models, e. The author acknowledges the award of a Fellowship of the Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University, UK, and many enlightening discussions with colleagues in environmental science and statistics.
More by David E Williams. Cite this: ACS Sens. Article Views Altmetric. Citations 7. Abstract High Resolution Image. Informal networks of low-cost devices have particularly come to prominence for air quality monitoring, 1,2 because in the face of knowledge that air quality can vary markedly in space and time, they appear to provide data where it is needed and immediately useful: adjacent to residents and not somewhere perceived as remote or inappropriate.
Advances in data management, processing, and communications have made it financially and logistically conceivable to operate a spatially dense network of monitors with high temporal resolution. Such networks could have the potential to resolve the complex spatial and temporal heterogeneity of air pollution concentrations in urban centers in near-real time.
The weak point is the measurement technology: the sensors that actually transduce a chemical composition into an observable signal. For dense networks, the cost of calibration and maintenance can very quickly become very much larger than the cost of installation in the first place. The data have to be believable without the need for regular on-site calibration, because the necessary network scale may be very large—hundreds or more of instruments.
This is an extremely challenging problem. The following paragraphs suggest a formal approach and then put current efforts into this context. Framing the Problem. Since one of the objectives of measurement is to decide whether to take action, a useful philosophical approach is a Bayesian framework, thinking about decisions in light of the uncertainty in information. This is a useful point of view because it enables one to see beyond the matrix algebra and asks a simple question, as framed by de Finetti: 7 what am I prepared to bet on this result being correct?
Framed that way, the question immediately focuses attention on the assumptions either explicitly or implicitly made in going from an observation or measurement to a reported result. If the assumptions are hidden, inappropriate, difficult to determine, or unacceptable, then the believability of the result will be low.
Expressed in other words, Jaynes 8 develops the idea that the expression of probability assigns a degree of plausibility given the evidence, which is revised in light of new evidence as this becomes available.
That approach highlights the evidence.Rich 1 ,3 ,4Philip K. Cite this article: Masiol, M. Aerosol Air Qual. Local source changes are identified with differential conditional bivariate probabilities.
Regional changes are shown by differential potential source contribution function. Conditional probability functions are commonly used for source identification purposes in air pollution studies. PSCF potential source contribution functiona trajectory-ensemble method, identifies the source regions most likely to be associated with high measured concentrations. However, these techniques do not allow the direct identification of areas where changes in emissions have occurred. This study presents an extension of conditional probability methods in which the differences between conditional probability values for temporally different sets of data can be used to explore changes in emissions from source locations.
The probability functions were computed for each of 4 periods that represent known changes in emissions. Correlation analyses were also performed on the results to find pollutants undergoing similar changes in local and regional sources.
The differential probability functions permitted the identification of major changes in local and regional emission location. In Rochester, changes in local air pollution were related to the shutdown of a large coal power plant SO 2 and to the abatement measures applied to road and off-road traffic primary pollutants.
The concurrent effects of these changes in local emissions were also linked to reduced concentrations of nucleation mode particles. Changes in regional source areas were related to the decreases in secondary inorganic aerosol and organic carbon.
New, low-cost sensors now permit continuous and simultaneous measurements to be made in multiple locations. In general, there was moderate spatial inhomogeneity, as indicated by multiple pairwise measures including coefficient of divergence and signed rank tests of the value distributions.
Although the accuracy of these PM sensors is limited, they are sufficiently precise relative to one another and to research grade instruments that they can be useful is assessing the spatial and temporal variations across an area and provide concentration estimates based on higher-quality central site monitoring data. Ambient particulate matter PM has a variety of adverse effects on human health [ 1 ]. Solomon et al. These limitations typically mean that a limited number of stations are deployed within major cities, and there are few stations located in remote areas and close to hotspots e.
In urban areas, urban background stations are placed in areas broadly representative of the city-wide pollution. However, the resulting limited spatial and temporal resolution may be a limitation for epidemiological studies, which aim to represent the inhalation exposure of people living across large areas with varying pollutant levels [ 5 ].How to stop mac address changing android
Lin et al. Thus, it would be useful to obtain spatially resolved information on an hourly basis to provide additional information for epidemiological studies. The use of recently developed low-cost monitoring instruments prices in s of USD can be a useful option to improve the temporal resolution and spatial coverage of hourly PM data [ 78 ]. These low-cost instruments are physically small and light, have low power demands, and require less handling and maintenance compared to scientific-grade FRM and FEM instruments.
Consequently, many sampling points can be monitored over wide areas to better elucidate the spatial variation of the air pollutants, for example to identify hotspots in a polluted environment [ 9 ], to estimate personal exposure [ 10 ], etc. However, low-cost monitors do not meet rigid performance standards and, therefore, have limitations [ 71112 ]. Because these low-cost monitors are being deployed by both researchers and the general public, there is a need to assess both the advantages and the limitations of low-cost instruments when determining their usefulness for large-scale studies [ 13 ].
Recently, several studies assessing low-cost PM monitors have been published for measuring occupational PM in a laboratory setting e. The number of such studies, however, is low compared to the number of low-cost devices produced globally, as many low-cost PM monitors are now on the market and the manufacturers are not required to provide testing to validate them [ 13 ].
In previous studies, Manikonda et al. These monitors were tested under laboratory and field conditions and compared to reference scientific-grade instruments in side-by-side collocated measurements.
The Speck units were deployed outdoors over two winter sampling campaigns to estimate the spatial variability of urban and suburban PM 2. This study describes the results of two sampling campaigns and discusses the utility of low-cost instruments to determine the spatial variability of hourly PM pollution across a large urban area for consideration of their use in future studies.
The measurements were conducted during two heating season sampling campaigns across Monroe County, NY, USA covering the period of late fall to early spring. The first measurement period started in early December 10th to 12th December and ended in early April 4th to 10th April since it took several days to deploy and retrieve the monitors. The second measurement period started at the end of October 27th October to 22th November and lasted until early April 2nd to 5th April.
The number of data points in each period is presented in Table 1 with the names starting with V denoting measurements during the first period, and names starting with P denoting measurements during the second year. Number of measured data points each corresponding to a 1-min measurementdata coverage of the 50 low-cost measurement units, percentage of data over LOD, and a bias correction factor. During the two periods, PM 2. The Speck air quality monitor Airviz Inc. This sensor works on a light scattering principle, estimating the mass concentration from the detected scattered light, and measures particle concentrations in the size range of 0.
A small fan pulls the air into the sensor and the concentrations are measured at an adjustable time resolution from 30 s to 4 min.
The instrument was previously tested with several other low-cost monitors under laboratory conditions [ 17 ] and under residential indoor and outdoor ambient conditions [ 18 ]. Thus, from the measured data in this study, two datasets were derived. The first dataset contains all the originally measured values. The percentage of data above LOD is reported in Table 1.Log in to view full text.
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This work was supported by The Henry M. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official positions of the Uniformed Services University, the U. Supplemental digital contents are available for this article. The objective of this study was to use ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHpolychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins PCDDand polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF concentrations measured at Joint Base Balad in Iraq in to identify the sources of these species and their spatial patterns.
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Ceccato; G. Rampazzo; B. Chapter 2, pp. Bartzis, Alexandros Syrakos, Spyros Andronopoulos, pp. RICH D.Metrics details. Previous studies have reported that fine particle PM 2. There were similar patterns for black carbon and SO 2. This may be due to changes in PM composition e. Peer Review reports. Over the past decade, policy initiatives to improve air quality have been implemented nationwide and in New York State [ 1 ]. These measures included the lowering of the sulfur content of diesel and home heating fuels, use of particle regenerative traps, and nitrogen oxide controls on new heavy-duty diesel vehicles.
Additionally, several actions to reduce sulfur dioxide SO 2 and nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from power plants in upwind source areas have also been enacted i. Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Furthermore, economic changes have also led to changes in emissions [ 12 ].
The economic drivers include the recession of that resulted in generally decreased economic activity and thus lower emissions, and a dramatic decline in the price of natural gas that displaced coal as a fuel for electricity generation. These policy initiatives and economic drivers resulted in changes in the concentrations and composition of air pollutants measured in Rochester, NY [ 123 ]. The reduction in PM 2.
These pollutants have been previously associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes [ 5678910 ]. Short-term increases in PM 2.
Furthermore, Rich et al. This result suggests that PM 2. Given these findings, reduced concentrations of secondary PM species sulfate and nitrate following the policy initiatives described above may result in a lower rate of STEMI per unit mass of PM, compared to periods when PM contained a higher proportion of secondary PM. Informed consent was not required since data were past events and the research could not affect treatment, there was no contact with study subjects, and all results are presented in aggregate only.
ECG criteria are both necessary and sufficient for the diagnosis of STEMI in a patient deemed by the treating physician to have symptoms consistent with cardiac chest pain.
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